vehicle tracking system

The vehicle tracking system is ideal for monitoring a car or an entire fleet. The tracking system consists of software that automatically tracks hardware and collects data (and, if needed, data transfers).


Today, we will analyze the "vehicle tracking system."


1. The active tracker and passive tracker active tracker and passive tracker collect the data in the same way and are equally accurate. The main difference between these two types of trackers is time.


Active trackers are also known as "real-time" trackers because they send data over satellite or cellular networks to instantly indicate vehicle location. The computer screen can display the movement of the vehicle in real time. Therefore, if companies want to improve delivery efficiency and understand the on-site driving situation of employees, then active tracking is the best choice. The active tracker also has a "geo-fence" capability (thinking this function as a "force field") that provides a warning signal when the car enters or leaves a predetermined location. In addition, such systems can help prevent theft of vehicles or the recovery of stolen vehicles. Of course, active GPS tracking devices are more expensive than passive tracking devices and require monthly service fees.


Passive trackers are cheaper, but data storage is limited, but they are smaller and easier to hide. Passive trackers store information on the device instead of sending data to a remote location. This tracker must be taken off the vehicle and connected to the computer to view the information stored in it. This type of system is suitable for people who track miles for work purposes and for businesses that want to reduce vehicle abuse. In addition, passive trackers are often used to monitor the actions of people (imagine as detective work). Passive trackers are a good choice if you don't need immediate feedback, but check device data regularly.


No matter which type of tracker is, it is inherently portable and has a relatively small form factor. Therefore, battery power is required, and a backup function is required to save data in the event of a power outage. Since charging a battery (usually a single-cell Li-ion battery) requires a higher automotive system voltage and a larger current, a switch-mode charger is desirable because of the switching mode charger charging efficiency compared to a linear battery charging IC. Higher, less heat is generated in the form of power consumption. In general, the input voltage for embedded automotive applications can be as high as 30 V, and some even higher. In these GPS tracking and positioning systems, a charger and a common 12 V to single-cell Li-Ion battery (typically 3.7 V) for much higher input voltages (when voltage transients originating from battery drift occur) Additional protection and some type of backup capability will be an ideal configuration.


2. Battery Charging IC Design Issues Traditional linear topology battery chargers are often valued for their compact footprint, simplicity, and modest cost. However, traditional linear chargers have some drawbacks, including limited input and battery voltage ranges, relatively large current consumption, excessive power consumption (heat generation), limited charge termination algorithms, and relatively low efficiency.


Switch-mode battery chargers are a popular choice because of their topological flexibility, which allows for the charging of multiple chemically-characterized batteries and high charging efficiency, thus minimizing heat and enabling fast charging. Has a wide operating voltage range.


Of course, the trade-offs always exist. Disadvantages of switching chargers include: relatively high cost, more complex inductor-based designs, possible noise generation, and large solution footprints. Due to the advantages of the above mentioned switching chargers, modern lead-acid batteries, wireless power supplies, energy harvesting, solar charging, remote sensors and embedded automotive applications are mostly powered by switch mode chargers.


Traditionally, the battery-oriented backup power management system in the tracker consists of multiple ICs, including a high-voltage buck regulator and a battery charger, as well as all discrete components, which is by no means a compact solution. Program. Therefore, the size of the early tracking system is not very compact. Typical tracking system applications use car batteries and single-cell Li-Ion batteries to support storage and backup.


Why does the tracking system require a more integrated power management solution?


It is necessary to reduce the size of the tracker itself. In this market, the smaller the size, the better;


Requires safe charging of the battery and protection against voltage transients for the IC, system backup capability to handle system power loss or failure, and relatively low power for the General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) chipset Rail voltage (~4.45 V) is supplied.


3. Power Backup Manager A solution that meets the above requirements and integrates the power backup manager and charger requires the following features:


* Synchronous buck topology for high efficiency;


* Wide input voltage range to suit a variety of input power sources, as well as protection against high voltage transients;


* Appropriate battery charging voltage to support GPRS chipset;


* Simple and autonomous operation with built-in charge termination (no microprocessor required);


* PowerPathTM Control - Seamless switching between input and backup power supplies in the event of a power failure, this control function also requires reverse isolation if an input short circuit occurs;


* Provide backup battery to supply system load when input disappears or fails;


* Due to space constraints, a flat solution with a small footprint is required;


* Advanced packaging to improve thermal performance and space utilization.




Figure 1 Typical application schematic of the LTC4091


4, heat regulation protection In order to prevent the heat from damaging the IC or surrounding components, if the temperature of the chip rises to about 105 °C, the internal heat feedback loop will automatically reduce the set charging current.


5, through the car cold car launch situation, automotive applications will experience a significant drop in power supply voltage, for example, in the case of cold car launch, a large drop in power supply voltage may cause the high-voltage switching regulator to lose regulation, resulting in excessive VC voltage, and therefore Excessive output overshoot caused when VIN is restored.


Conclusion The adoption rate of car and fleet tracking systems is rising. Modern trackers are shrinking in size and capabilities, including active data transfer to support real-time tracking. In addition, backup functions and lower voltages to power the GPRS chipset in the system are required.


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