Analysis on the Status Quo of the Development of Japan-North Cold Chain Transport Monitoring Logistics

As we all know, Japan is a country that attaches great importance to food freshness and food safety. It is a leader in the cold chain transportation monitoring and preservation technology. Before the 1970s, the circulation of fresh fruit in Japan was almost the same as in China. Since the end of the 1960s, Japan The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries organized and implemented the construction of low-flow circulation system for fresh produce and the improvement of its technology. The research and technological improvement of Japanese fresh fruit circulation have benefited from this action. It has rapidly achieved rapid development in the academic and circulation industries.

In the early period, through the investigation and analysis of the rot occurrence in the circulation of fresh fruit, after it was clarified that the rot was mainly related to extensive harvesting, light loading and unloading, packaging extrusion, and operation recovery, etc., it was related to non-injury harvesting and compression. Corrugated cartons are lightweight, packaged (5-10 kilograms), and other improvements. The construction of rural roads has also been strengthened in conjunction with national road construction. These improvements have effectively improved the serious problem of rot in the circulation of fresh fruit in Japan at that time, and reduced the rot rate in circulation from the conventional 20%-30% to 5%-10%. Afterwards, the research quickly turned to the discussion of the factors that affect the quality of the circulation, as well as the methods of air conditioning. It is clear that the rapid increase in temperature within the fresh fruit packaging box to about 40°C during the process of transporting the spokes is a major factor in the deterioration of product quality in circulation and aggravated decay. Precooling before post-harvest transport can effectively reduce the respiratory intensity during transport and Respiratory heat release, coupled with the low-speed operation M can effectively control the production of radiation heat damage and obtain better circulation and preservation effect. After that, Japan has implemented the overall construction of a low-rise cold-chain circulation fresh-keeping system in Japan. The establishment of a low-return circulation system for Japanese fresh fruits is combined with vegetables, flowers, and the like. By the 1990s, Japan had realized the construction of cold chain circulation and preservation systems in the country, pre-cooling production areas, a low-elevation refrigerated vehicle, and the sales of cold chain circulation. These synchronized academic research and technical highlights recommended activities. Japan's low circulation can be normalized under the guidance of scientific and reasonable theory and technology.

In the cold chain transportation monitoring and circulation, pre-cooling is one of the key links for maintaining the high-quality circulation of fresh fruit. The cold storage is the necessary facility condition for pre-cooling. Fresh fruits are harvested and brought into the low temperature state to directly influence the respiratory intensity after harvest. And sooner or later, the peak of breath comes. Post-harvest pre-cooling can effectively reduce the respiratory intensity and respiratory heat release during transportation. In the circulation, when the respiratory intensity is high, and the respiratory peak comes early, the quality of the fruit deteriorates quickly, and the freshness of the fruit is increased. Warming up quickly will add to the decay and deterioration of quality. In order to achieve efficient preservation of fresh fruit, Japan has built cold storage in the country's main producing area. These cold store owners are used for pre-cooling and partial short-term storage of fresh foods for circulation. They are also used for fresh agricultural products such as fruits, leeks, and flowers. The annual utilization rate is relatively high. The early construction mainly consisted of forced-ventilation cold storage. The cold storage required 12-20 hours for one-time cooling. The harvest could not be shipped on the same day and the speed of listing was affected. The utilization rate of the warehouse was low, and it was difficult to achieve large batches at the time of peak harvest. Pre-cooling. In the later stage, with the progress of refrigeration technology, the development of a differential pressure ventilated cold storage with good side cooling effect and fast cooling speed (one cold pre-cooling can be completed in 2-6 hours) and a vacuum-type cold storage (20-40 minutes in one pre-cooling can be completed ).

In recent years, a cold storage with an ethylene removal device has also been developed. Japanese vegetable cold chain transportation monitoring is more pre-cooled and fresh fruit is less. Pre-cooling of fresh fruit generally adopts pressure-difference or forced-ventilation cold storage, and mature grass, pears, picks, and glutinous grapes are listed in the autumn high temperature season. There are applications on fresh fruit. Japan's fresh fruit is mainly run by the National Agricultural Association of Japan. Cold storage areas are mainly managed by the Japan National Agricultural Association. The agricultural associations across the country, the wholesale markets and stores that manage fresh agricultural products throughout the country all have cold storage. The fresh fruits produced by farmers are sold to various wholesale markets and stores after precooling in the cold storage of agricultural associations. The cold storage in the producing area is generally adjusted according to the type of treated fruit. In the comprehensive low-distribution wholesale market and low-return store, the temperature is generally set above the critical value of the critical value of cold damage in all the business operations. For example, the set temperature of the Daejeon wholesale market is 15C.

In recent years, Japan has also introduced a small mobile cold storage (about 10 cubic meters). It is also used for temporary cold cuts after harvesting of fresh fruit and for a longer period of local low storage and storage. The small cold storage can realize the integration of storage and transportation. The storage and sale of fruits can be carried together with the cold storage.

The construction of these high-efficiency refrigeration facilities and the implementation of cold-chain circulation with “pre-cooling and low-temperature transportation at the place of production.” are the basic features for Japanese fresh fruit to be listed under the condition of no pesticide or low-pesticide treatment with high quality, good freshness and low degree of deterioration. Guarantee.

Transporter performance and handling technology improvements. Japan's fresh fruit is mainly transported by freight cars. Some are transported by trains and sea boats. Japan's early-used freight cars are similar to China's existing ordinary freight cars. Now they mainly use cryogenic vehicles that can be trained to perform medium and long-distance travel. In ordinary short-distance transport programs and low-temperature seasons and areas where the temperature is suitable. Non-refrigerated vehicles are often used.

At the same time as the development of low-temperature cold chain transportation monitoring and circulation, it has benefited from the development of mechanization in the transport and handling industry, and the loading and unloading of fresh fruit in Japan's national and general markets, wholesale markets, and stores has also progressed from the past to the loading and unloading of human boxes. Manpower intensive transportation and manpower intensive loading and unloading or mechanical intensive loading and unloading. The current circulation mainly uses metal racks (about 42 boxes of fresh fruit per rack) for handling and handling. When loading and unloading trucks, they are manually loaded and unloaded through high platforms or manually loaded and unloaded by dedicated loading and unloading trucks and automatic loading and unloading accessories. In order to adapt to the development of this entire racking and intensive loading and unloading, some freight cars in Japan have added an automatic full-frame loading and unloading attachment that can lift the fruit in the pot racks to the compartment. The driver can complete the entire cargo smoothly. Fast loading and unloading. Improvements in these loading and unloading technologies have effectively shortened the time required for fresh fruit to leave the low-temperature environment during loading and unloading between cold storage, wholesale markets, and low-temperature sales shops. At the same time, it has reduced the damage of fresh fruit during loading, unloading, and handling. The labor-saving degree and work efficiency of the operation.

Improved packaging in circulation and preservation. In early Japan, bamboo baskets and wooden boxes were used to package fresh fruit. In the 70s and 80s of the 20th century, they were replaced by corrugated boxes. At the time, they were mainly used to make small holes on both sides of the boxes. The type of packing box (similar to the corrugated paper box used in our country) is not conducive to the heat dissipation in the box and the exchange of cold and hot air. After continuous improvement. In recent years, Japan has used a non-sealed box. This improved open packaging box facilitates the exchange of hot and cold air in pre-cooling and transportation. It also facilitates the sale of a continuous packaging box that runs through "pre-cooling, transportation, and sales."

Japan's fresh fruit at low temperature circulation and preservation of the overall point to be treated: First, pay attention to rot control while paying attention to the quality and appearance of the preservation. The second is the pursuit of pollution-free preservation. In the preservation process as far as possible the implementation of pesticide-free or low-toxicity treatment. Through the human health and safety and environmental pollution, low temperature, shipping, packaging and other technology improvements to improve the effect of preservation; the third is to focus on circulation The infrastructure, mechanization, and labor-saving construction in preservation are improved through high-level and high-tech facilities and mechanized operations. The high level of liquidity and labor saving are achieved.

Improvements in retail store sales. Early Japanese fresh fruit was sold at natural temperatures. It was refined into low-temperature sales around the 1970s. Nowadays, the combination of fresh produce such as vegetables, fruits, flowers (cut flowers), grain and oil products, livestock products, aquatic products, etc., has become the mainstream of sales in integrated low-temperature retail stores. In these comprehensive stores, the demand for low-temperature conditions is relatively high. High fruit sulphur and meats are sold on low-temperature open shelves that are air-cooled. On the seller's side, in order to facilitate the carrying and maintaining of freshness for a period of time after purchase, a quantitatively priced, small-packaged sale was also introduced. These small packages are mostly transparent thin plastic boxes with a certain hardness, or a combination of the bottom and the surrounding harder and the upper transparent film covering the cover. It is not only convenient for customers to buy and select, but also can protect the fresh fruit from pressure and can be reduced. Loss of fresh fruit during sales and after-sales service. The cutting of pineapples, watermelons, melons, etc. also benefits from this type of packaging and low-temperature sales.

Well, the development status of Japan's cold chain transportation monitoring is introduced here. We have been interested in cold chain transportation monitoring friends. Welcome to contact us through the official website to discuss and share. We wholeheartedly serve you!

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