What are the characteristics of cold chain transport monitoring system?

The increase in consumer tastes requires producers and commercial operators to continuously improve and maintain the quality of food. Cold chain transportation monitoring process will not change the quality of food, but it can maintain the quality of food. At present, consumers are not only concerned with the quality of food produced, but also concerned about the quality of the product when it reaches the consumer. The strict distinction between the shelf life and shelf life, and the stringent requirements for freshness, have made fresh foods available for low-temperature transportation and storage sales. driving force.

The fresh food circulating under the cold chain transportation monitoring system maintains good quality, improves the grade of food, and extends the sales period. For producers and circulators, it is possible to obtain the logistics service through the use of cold chain transportation monitoring. The "additional value" brought about by the excess profits, to improve the extent of circulation to meet consumer demand.

In the process of circulation of agricultural products, the phenomenon of waste is very serious because there is no better transport and storage conditions. An effective way to reduce waste in the circulation of agricultural products is to use cold chain logistics. In this sense, reducing the loss in circulation is one of the important roles of cold chain logistics. Of course, the use of low-temperature transportation and storage itself is also an investment that requires resources, but also costs, whether as a producer or a distributor must consider the relationship between investment and output. The adoption of cold chain is determined by the relationship between income and cost. When the cost of cold chain investment can be compensated reasonably through market prices, cold chain will be considered.

The essence of the cold chain transport monitoring system is a market-oriented, consumer-oriented supply security system for low-temperature foods and medicines. It is responsible for the space transfer and time adjustment of low-temperature (fresh) foods and pharmaceuticals from the place of production to consumers. The logistics activities of low-temperature foods are different from ordinary room-temperature foods in terms of technical requirements, operation organization, linking, etc. The following characteristics are exhibited.

(I) Strict temperature control

The target products for cold chain logistics include fresh agricultural products, fresh processed foods and pharmaceuticals, etc. These products are all perishable products that are easily corroded and deteriorated at normal temperatures, and the 'temperature' is the most important factor affecting their quality. Also known as cryogenic logistics, it is to complete the entire process of logistics and sales of perishable products in a low-temperature environment.

Cold chain logistics is a low-temperature logistics process that must follow the "3T" principle. That is, the final product quality depends on the time of storage, circulation, temperature, and product tolerance of the cold chain. .1 The decline in the quality of frozen foods during low temperature circulation has a great relationship with the transport time. It can be said that time is the life of cold chain foods; 2 in the entire circulation process, the quality degradation due to temperature changes is Inevitably, it is gradually and cumulatively, and when it reaches a certain level, it loses the value of the commodity, so the commodity temperature in the cold chain logistics needs to be controlled;3 The lower the temperature of the frozen food, the lower its quality is. Slower. Shelf life will be extended accordingly.

(II) High timeliness requirements

Fresh produce and fresh foods have a short shelf life even at low temperatures. During the logistics and sales process, due to temperature changes, corrosion and deterioration are prone to occur. Storage and delivery to sales venues are required within a specified period of time. The shelf life also needs to be strictly controlled. Therefore, the timeliness requirements for fresh agricultural products and fresh food products under quality assurance must be taken into account in all aspects of storage, distribution processing, transportation, and sales.

(three) strong specificity

In order to maintain the quality of food, during the entire cold chain logistics process, cold storage and refrigerating and warming vehicles are required to be used for pre-cooling, cooling, freezing, storage and transportation, and logistics operations such as sorting and circulation processing are completed in a low-temperature environment and entered into retail sales. The cold chain foods of the chain also need to be kept at a low-temperature refrigeration facility. The use of special equipment for cryogenic storage and transportation and logistics is an important characteristic of cold chain logistics. This feature leads to a high technical content of cold chain logistics, high equipment specificity, and high difficulty in operation.

(IV) High logistics costs

Due to the use of special cold logistics facilities and equipment for cold chain logistics, equipment investment is large, and more energy is consumed during storage and transportation. Therefore, the operating costs are high, and the logistics costs account for a relatively high proportion of food costs or sales. .

(5) High coordination requirements on the upstream and downstream links of the cold chain

The cold chain logistics needs to seamlessly link each other to ensure the smooth circulation of cold chain goods in the appropriate temperature, moderate and sanitary channels. The special nature of cold-chain logistics makes its process organization highly coordinated. It needs to improve the function of the cold-chain information system, fully play an effective information-oriented role, and ensure the smooth flow of cold-chain products.

The above characteristics of cold-chain logistics determine that the cold-chain logistics system must be superior to the general logistics system in terms of facilities, organization, coordination, and standardization of operation in addition to the characteristics of the general logistics system.

First, in terms of equipment and facilities, cold chain equipment such as refrigerated trucks, cold storage, low-temperature cargo handling yards, and refrigerating cabinets and fresh-keeping shelves in sales venues are required to support cold chain system operations.

Second, in terms of organizational coordination, in order to ensure the integrity of the cold chain, upstream and downstream related nodes need to cooperate closely to achieve a smooth time to dock.

Third, in terms of standardization, it is necessary to have strict standards governing the operation of cold chain logistics, including facilities standards as well as operational standards and service standards.

(6) Spatial dispersion of food cold chain logistics

The spatial characteristics of food cold chain logistics are mainly reflected in the spatial difference between supply and demand. The spatial difference between the food supply and demand analysis of the food chain logistics system is determined by the social division of labor and geographical conditions. Food cold chain logistics will change the spatial location of food through its functional elements such as transportation, creating “spatial value”.

First, there is a spatial disparity in the distribution of production sites of agricultural products, which are the majority of food raw materials, and the relative concentration of consumption sites. In China, the production of agricultural products is scattered in the vast rural areas, and the city is the main consumer of these agricultural products. These agricultural products are either purchased directly by commercial organizations or purchased by cooperative economic organizations or acquired by leading enterprises of industrialized operations. Then they are processed, frozen, refrigerated, stored, transported and distributed to retailers.

Second, the large-scale transfer of food from one region to another. All activities in agricultural production are carried out within a certain area. The natural conditions, socio-economic conditions, and technical conditions in each place are different, resulting in agricultural production. The geographical distribution shows obvious geographical differences. The Pearl River Delta is known as the “hometown of fruits,” especially for lychees, citrus, bananas, and pineapple with the best quality and the highest number. During the harvest season each year, a large number of fruits in the south continue to lose people in the north through various modes of transport; while aquatic products such as fish, shrimps, crabs and other aquatic products on the eastern coast continue to flow into inland areas such as the Midwest. It is this spatial difference that creates a source of profit for food cold chain logistics.

Finally, from the concentration of foodstuffs, people create value in the dispersed demand places. Foods are transported to a food distribution center after being assembled and distributed, and then processed through circulation, and then distributed to supermarkets, convenience stores, and other retailers in various locations in the city through refrigerated trucks, etc., eventually reaching the kitchens of thousands of households. The whole process has strong divergence. Sex.

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